Telecom Market Research, Consulting, Industry Analysis

marketing@insight-corp.com | +1 973 541 9600 | +91 80 6793 5731

2201, World Trade Center, Brigade Gateway Campus, Malleswaram, Bengaluru India 560055

Purchase Now

The 2015 Telecommunications Industry Review: An Anthology of Market Facts and Forecasts

Publication Month : January 2015   |   Report Code : REVIEW15   |   Pages : 100

The 2015 Telecom Industry Review summarizes current conditions across the global telecommunications industry, providing analysis of multiple infrastructure and service segments. From fundamental background issues to detailed five-year forecasts accompanied by practical strategic advice, the Review provides a comprehensive summary of INSIGHT’s research reports throughout the year. In addition to ...

Purchase Now Download Executive Summary

The 2015 Telecom Industry Review summarizes current conditions across the global telecommunications industry, providing analysis of multiple infrastructure and service segments. From fundamental background issues to detailed five-year forecasts accompanied by practical strategic advice, the Review provides a comprehensive summary of INSIGHT’s research reports throughout the year. In addition to five-year revenue and unit forecasts of telecommunications services, the Review provides an examination of the most important segments and technologies impacting the industry, including wireless demand, optical networking, Ethernet services, and cloud services. This report looks at the global telecommunications services and equipment market in each region: North America; Europe-Middle East-Africa; Asia and the Pacific Rim countries; and Latin America. Modest growth has returned to most telecom markets across the globe and the Review identifies the segments that will thrive over the second-half of the decade.

1.1       Telecommunications Industry Economic Conditions

The past year witnessed a pronounced upswing in the economic fortunes of the United States (US). The larger picture however was a sobering one; modest growth in most markets, significant economic slowdown in the hyper-growth rates enjoyed over the past decade in advancing economies, and renewed political and economic threats in some isolated countries. China and other emerging market economies in Asia and Latin America have slowed from the double-digit growth rates of the past decade, while India looks forward to the next half-decade with cautious optimism. While consumer and infrastructure spending is rising in most regions, other regions, such as Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and sub-Saharan Africa, remain in a weak investment climate.................

Download the Free Executive Summary

http://www.insight-corp.com/sendexec.asp?report=review14&ReportName=The 2014 Telecommunications Industry Review: An Anthology of Market Facts and Forecasts

Market Segmentation

 

Telecommunications Industry Markets
              By Geography
                                United States
                                North America
                                Europe/Middle East/Africa
                                Latin America/Caribbean
                                Asia/Pacific
              Carrier Revenue by Service
                               Global Wireline and Wireless Revenues
                               NA Wireline and Wireless Revenues
                               US Wireline and Wireless Revenues
                               EMEA Wireline and Wireless Revenues
                               AP Wireline and Wireless Revenues
                               LA Wireline and Wireless Revenues
              Wireline Revenues and Demand by Service
                              Access Revenue by Region
                              US Access Revenue
                              Broadband Revenue by Region
                              US Broadband Revenue
                              Access Lines by Region
                              US Access Lines
                              Broadband Subs by Region
                              US Broadband Subs
              Wireless Revenues and Demand by Region and US
                             Wireless Revenue by Region and US
                              Subscribers by Region and US
                              Penetration of Population by Region and US
              Wireless Data Technologies Comparison

Next Generation Network Infrastructure
              US VoIP Subscribers and Penetration
              Operator Capex in Selected Geographies
              Impacts of VoIP on International Telecommunications Services
              Total US Public Ethernet Revenues

Access Networks
              US Wireline Switched Access Lines
              US Wireless Subscribers
              US Voice Services Penetration of Households
              Broadband Communication Network Access Solutions
              Worldwide Broadband Subscribers
              Global Wireless Subscribers
              Regional Wireless Penetration of Population
              Historical US Wireless Subscribership Growth
              Revenue Split between Non-Voice and Voice Wireless Revenue
              Monthly Voice and Text Usage by Age

OSS, BSS & Outsourcing
              Outsourced Services Market Estimates by Region

Present & Future Services
              Mashup Revenue Opportunity for Telcos by Region
              Financial Services & Equipment Revenue by Region
              Operator Capex in Selected Geographies

US Business and Consumer Markets

             Classification of Mobile Phone Sales

             Classification of Cellular Voice and Data Revenues

Enterprise Markets
              Classification of US Businesses
                             US Business Distribution: All Business Sizes
                             Business Establishments by Industry Sector & Business Size
                             Business Lines: Distribution by Industry Sector
              US Private Line Revenue
              Managed Services Revenues by Region
              Top-Tier Business Expenditures for Telecom Wireline Services
              Top-Tier Business Expenditures for Telecom Wireless Services
              US Healthcare Telecom Service Revenues
              Global Market for Enterprise Mobility Solutions
              Global Market for All UC Segments: Solutions, Services and Carrier Revenues
              US Telecommunications Revenue by Market: Wireline Business, Wireline  
                     Residence, Wireless, Video
              US MSO Commercial Service Revenues
              Revenue Projection for Hosted PBX/VoIP Service in the Small Business Segment 

Chapter I
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1.1 Telecommunications Industry Economic Conditions
         1.1.1 Regional Economies and Communications Patterns
1.2 Report Structure


Chapter II
BACKGROUND: TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY MARKETS
2.1 Global Markets
         2.1.1 Regional Economies and Communications Patterns
         2.1.2 Global Telecommunications Spending
         2.1.3 North American Telecommunications Spending
                  2.1.3.1 US Telecommunications Spending
         2.1.4 European, Middle East, and Africa Telecommunications Spending
         2.1.5 Asia-Pacific Telecommunications Spending
         2.1.6 Latin America-Caribbean Telecommunications Spending
2.2 Wireline Market Trends
         2.2.1 Wireline Revenues
         2.2.2 Wireline Demand
2.3 Wireless Market Trends
         2.3.1 Wireless Revenues
         2.3.2 Wireless Demand
         2.3.3 Wireless Technology



Chapter III
THE NEXT-GENERATION COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK:
IMPROVEMENTS TO THE INFRASTRUCTURE

3.1 Definitions of Network Topology
         3.1.1 End-Users
         3.1.2 Access Networks
         3.1.3 Metro Networks
         3.1.4 Core Networks
3.2 Transmission Improvements
3.3 Circuit Switching vs. Packet Switching Overview
3.4 The Public Switched Telephone Network
         3.4.1 Evolution of the PSTN
         3.4.2 Central Offices
3.5 Data Networks and VoIP
         3.5.1 Broadband Switches
         3.5.2 Data Core Networks
                  3.5.2.1 MPLS
         3.5.3 Data Metro Networks
         3.5.4 Data Access Networks
         3.5.5 Signaling and Support Structures for Data Networks
         3.5.6 Voice over Internet Protocol
         3.5.7 VoIP as Transport
         3.5.8 VoIP Operational Advantage
         3.5.9 VoIP as Value-Added Stage
3.6 Carrier Ethernet Networks
         3.6.1 E-line Ethernet Access
         3.6.2 E-LAN
         3.6.3 Other Typologies: Dedicated vs. Switched
         3.6.4 Carrier Ethernet Market Forecast
3.7 The Next Generation Network
         3.7.1 Gateways
         3.7.2 Softswitches
                  3.7.2.1 Economic Motivations
         3.7.3 Service Delivery Platforms
         3.7.4 IP Multimedia Subsystems
3.8 Optical Networking
         3.8.1 Baseline Optical Transport Technologies
                  3.8.1.1 SONET/SDH
                  3.8.1.2 WDM
                  3.8.1.3 MPLS
                  3.8.1.4 Metro Ethernet
         3.8.2 Optical Transport Technology Overview
                  3.8.2.1 SONET/SDH
                  3.8.2.2 WDM
                  3.8.2.3 MPLS
                  3.8.2.4 Metro Ethernet
         3.8.3 Current Gaps in Baseline Transport Technologies
                  3.8.3.1 SONET/SDH
                  3.8.3.2 WDM
                  3.8.3.3 MPLS
                  3.8.3.4 Ethernet
         3.8.4 The Hybrid Approach to Optical Transport Technologies
                  3.8.4.1 Carrier Ethernet
                  3.8.4.2 GMPLS
                  3.8.4.3 ROADM
3.9 Capital Expenditures Forecast


Chapter IV
THE ACCESS NETWORK: NARROWBAND AND BROADBAND
4.1 Narrowband: The Decline of US Landlines
4.2 Broadband Access Networks
         4.2.1 Broadband Access Forecasts
4.3 Access Network Technology Options
         4.3.1 DSL
         4.3.2 Cable
         4.3.3 Bonded Copper
                  4.3.3.1 Technology
         4.3.4 Fiber
         4.3.5 Wireless
                  4.3.5.1 Global Wireless Trends
                  4.3.5.2 US Wireless Trends
         4.3.6 Fixed Mobile Convergence
         4.3.7 WiFi
         4.3.8 WiMAX
4.4 Spending Patterns’ Impacts on Access and Beyond
         4.4.1 Telecom Spending by Consumers and Businesses



Chapter V
SUPPORTING THE INFRASTRUCTURE: OSSES, BSSES, AND OUTSOURCING
5.1 Operations Support Systems Overview
5.2 Operations Support Applications
5.3 Business Operations Support
         5.3.1 Billing
                  5.3.1.1 Billing Mediation
                  5.3.1.2 Rating
                  5.3.1.3 Order Management
                  5.3.1.4 Data Collection
                  5.3.1.5 Policy Management
         5.3.2 Customer Care
         5.3.3 Business Management
5.4 Network Operations Support
         5.4.1 Engineering and Planning
         5.4.2 Provisioning
         5.4.3 Trouble Repair
         5.4.4 Network Management
                  5.4.4.1 Fault Management
                  5.4.4.2 Configuration Management
                  5.4.4.3 Performance Management
                  5.4.4.4 Security Management
         5.4.5 Workforce Management
5.5 OSS Market Revenue Estimates
         5.5.1 Impacts of Equipment Markets on OSSes
5.6 The Impacts of Open Source Software on OSSes
         5.6.1 The Question of Intellectual Property
         5.6.2 Open Source Software Benefits
         5.6.3 Open Source Software Project Challenges
         5.6.4 Open Source Support: The Commercial License


Chapter VI
PRESENT AND FUTURE COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES MARKETS
6.1 IP-Based Application Services
         6.1.1 Introduction & Definitions
         6.1.2 VoIP as a Non-Starter
         6.1.3 Key IP Service Trends
                  6.1.3.1 Residential Video Telephony Market
                  6.1.3.2 Fixed Mobile Convergence
                  6.1.3.3 File Sharing/Downloading & Multimedia Messaging
                  6.1.3.4 Streaming Services
                  6.1.3.5 Location-Based Services
6.2 The Future of IP Services: Web 2.0
         6.2.1 Web 2.0 and Mashups
         6.2.2 Web 2.0 & the Carriers
         6.2.3 Web 2.0 Market Forecast
6.3 The Future of IP Services: Mashups
         6.3.1 What We Found
         6.3.2 What Role for Telcos in Mashups?
         6.3.3 Mashup Market Forecast
6.4 Mobile Phones’ Impacts on the Financial Sector
         6.4.1 Core Banking
         6.4.2 User Financial Applications for Mobile Phones
         6.4.3 Financial Services Segment Forecast
6.5 Telecommunications Role in Improving the Environment
         6.5.1 Modeling the Benefits of Green
6.6 The Future of Telecommunications
         6.6.1 IP Changes Everything
         6.6.2 Convergence Cuts Both Ways        
         6.6.3 The Road Ahead for Operators
         6.6.4 The Road Ahead for OEMs




Chapter VII
ENTERPRISE TELECOMMUNICATIONS MARKETS
7.1 US Business versus Consumer Spending Patterns
         7.1.1 Telecommunications Spending in Transition
         7.1.2 US Business versus Consumer Spending Forecast
7.2 The Classification of Businesses by Size
         7.2.1 Distribution of Business by Size
         7.2.2 The Business Line Market Methodology and Analysis
         7.2.3 The Business Line Market in Small Enterprises
7.3 Private Lines
         7.3.1 Evolution in the Private Line Services Market
         7.3.2 Circuit Types
                  7.3.2.1 56 Kbit/s Circuits
                  7.3.2.2 64 Kbit/s Clear-Channel Circuits (DS0)
                  7.3.2.3 Fractional T1 Circuits
                  7.3.2.4 T1 Circuits (DS1)
                  7.3.2.5 Fractional T3 Circuits (Fractional DS3)
                  7.3.2.6 T3 Circuits (DS3)
                  7.3.2.7 Optical Carrier Circuits
         7.3.3 SONET, IP and Private Lines
         7.3.4 Private Line Circuit Layout
         7.3.5 Redundancy & Restoration
         7.3.6 Private Line Alternatives
         7.3.7. Current Market Drivers
                  7.3.7.1 Enterprise Data Migration from IT to User
                  7.3.7.2 Increased Traffic on ISP Distribution Networks
                  7.3.7.3 Mobility and Private Lines
                  7.3.7.4 Video on Demand and Private Lines
         7.3.8 Market Forecast
7.4 Managed Services & the Enterprise
         7.4.1 Why Managed Services?
         7.4.2 Industry Structure
         7.4.3 Managed Service Industry Forecast
                  7.4.3.1 US Managed Services Forecast Summary
                  7.4.3.2 Global Managed Services Forecast Summary
7.5 Healthcare as a Fast Growing Vertical Industry
         7.5.1 Healthcare Industry Structure Ready for Change
         7.5.2 Market Estimate of Healthcare Telecom Spending
7.6 The Mobile Workforce and Enterprise Applications
         7.6.1 The Key Enterprise Mobility Applications
                  7.6.1.1 FMC and VoIP
                  7.6.1.2 IM and E-mail
                  7.6.1.3 Conferencing and Collaboration
                  7.6.1.4 Mobility Machine-to-Machine Communications
                  7.6.1.5 Sales Force Automation
         7.6.2 Mobile Enterprise Market Forecasts
7.7 The CATV MSOs’ Push into the Enterprise
         7.7.1 CATV Industry
         7.7.2 MSO Commercial Services: Big Opportunity, Major Challenges
         7.7.3 Deploying Commercial Services
         7.7.4 Market Forecast Summary
7.8 Hosted Voice Services in the Small Enterprise
         7.8.1 The Small Business Market for Hosted PBX/VoIP Services
7.9 Advanced Strategic Services: The Growth Engine for Wireline Business Services
         7.9.1 Advanced Strategic Services
         7.9.2 Importance of Strategic Services
         7.9.3 Market Forecast Summary

List for Tables:

Table of Tables
 

CHAPTER II

II-1     Global Carrier Revenue by Region, 2015-2020 (Billions)
II-2     US Carrier Revenue, 2015-2020 (Billions)
II-3     Global Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 (Billions)
II-4     NA Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-5     US Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-6     EMEA Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-7     AP Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-8     LA Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-9     Global Wireline Revenue by Region, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-10   Access Revenue by Region, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-11   US Access Revenue, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-12   Broadband Revenue by Region, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-13   US Broadband Revenue, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-14   Access Lines by Region, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-15   US Access Lines, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-16   Broadband Subs by Region, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-17   US Broadband Subs, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-18   Global Wireless Revenue by Region, 2015-2020 ($Billions)
II-19   Wireless Subs by Region, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-20   NA Wireless Subscriber Penetration, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-21   US Wireless Subscriber Penetration, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-22   EMEA Wireless Subscriber Penetration, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-23   AP Wireless Subscriber Penetration, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-24   LA Wireless Subscriber Penetration, 2015-2020 (Millions)
II-25   Wireless Data Technologies Comparison
II-26   US Wireless Carriers 4G LTE Coverage as of December 2014


Chapter III

III 1    Definitions of Digital Private Line Services
III 2    SONET Data Rates
III-3   Network Locations of Broadband Switches
III-4   Downstream DSL Bit-rates vs. Reach (Mbit/s)
III-5   US VoIP Subscribers and Penetration, 2014-2019 (Millions)
III-6   Characteristics of Ethernet Service Varieties
III-7   Total US Public Ethernet Revenues, 2014-2019 ($Millions)
III-8   Gateway Definitions
III-9   Softswitch Advantages/Disadvantages
III-10 Economic Benefits of Softswitch Technology
III-11 Strategies to Increase Network Service Margins
III-12 Interrelationship between STM, STS, OC, and Gbit/s
III-13 ITU’s Laser Grid
III-14 Operator Capex in Selected Geographies 2013-2017 ($ Billions)



Chapter IV

IV-1   US Wireline Switched Access Lines, Penetration 2014-2019 (Millions)
IV-2   US Wireless Subscribers, 2015-2020 (Millions)
IV-3   Broadband Communication Network Access Solutions
IV-4   Versions and Features of xDSL
IV-5   Consumer VoWLAN/Cellular Service Scenario: Advantages and Disadvantages
IV-6   US Telecommunications Profitability from Consumer and Business Services, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
IV-7   Business vs. Consumer Mobile Phones Sales 2013-2019 ($Millions)
IV-8   Business vs. Consumer Cellular Voice Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
IV-9   Business vs. Consumer Cellular Data Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)



Chapter V
V-1    Operations Support System Definitions Summary
V-2    Related OSS Definitions
V-3    Worldwide OSS Sales by Region, 2011-2016 ($Billions)
V-4    Operator Capex in Selected Geographies, 2013-2017 ($Billions)



Chapter VI
VI-1  Green Communications Portfolio of Product Domains, Services and Applications


Chapter VII

VII-1   Consumer and Business Telecommunications Revenue Stream Breakdown
VII-2   US Telecommunications Revenues from Consumers and Businesses, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-3   US Business vs. Consumer Mobile Phones Sales 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-4   US Business vs. Consumer Cellular Voice Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-5   US Business vs. Consumer Cellular Data Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-6   US Business Distribution: All Business Sizes
VII-7   Business Establishments by Industry Sector and Business Size: Small Enterprises vs. All Other Segments
VII-8   Business Lines: Distribution by Industry Sector
VII-9   Business Lines by Industry Sector and Business Size: Small Enterprises vs. Large and Medium Enterprises
VII-10 Digital Services Hierarchy
VII-11 SONET/Optical Carrier Hierarchy
VII-12 Impact of “Forces” on Private Line Revenue
VII-13 Total Private Line Revenue 2013-2018 ($Millions)
VII-14 Private Line Revenue, Local vs. Long Distance, 2013-2018 ($Millions)
VII-15 Managed Services Segments
VII-16 US Managed Services Revenue, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-17 Global Managed Services Revenues, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-18 Healthcare Market Segments
VII-19 Healthcare Segment Dimensions and Trends
VII-20 Business Lines by Industry Sector and Business Size: Small Enterprises vs. Large and Medium Enterprises
VII-21 ILECs & MSOs Operating Territories Covered 

List for Figures:


Chapter I
I-1       Global Carrier Revenue by Region, 2014-2019 ($Billions)
I-2       Global Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2020-2020 ($Billions)
I-3       US Wireline and Wireless Revenues, 2015-2020 ($Billions)


Chapter II
II-1      US LTE Coverage, 2010-2014


Chapter III

III-1     Public Communication Network Architecture
III-2     SONET Ring Configuration
III 3     Hierarchy of Broadband Switch Functions
III 4     Typical National Data Core Network
III-5     E-Line Point-to-Point Service Type
III-6     E-LAN Multipoint-to-Multipoint Service Type
III-7     Total US Public Ethernet Revenues, 2014-2019 ($Millions)
III-7     Softswitch Architecture Diagram
III-8     Circuit vs. Packet Switching of Internet Traffic
III-9     SDP Service Provider Network Architecture
III-10   STS-1 Frame Structure
III-11   STM-1 Frame Structure
III-12   Four-Channel DWDM System
III-13   Schematic of an MPLS Network
III-14   Label Header Structure
III-15   MPLS over WDM Core




Chapter IV

IV-1     US Voice Services Penetration of Households, 2014-2019
IV-2     Worldwide Broadband Subscribers, 2014-2019 (Millions)
IV-3     HFC Architecture Providing Video and Voice Services
IV-4     Typical Backhaul Configuration
IV-5     Typical DSLAM Backhaul Application
IV-6     Global Wireless Subscribers, 2014-2019 (Millions)
IV-7     US Wireless Subscribers, 1997-2017 (Millions)
IV-8     US Wireless Average Minutes Per Local Call, 2008-2010
IV-9     Revenue Split between Non-Voice and Voice Wireless Revenue, 2009 and 2010 ($Billions)
IV-10   Phone Usage Habits, Women versus Men, January 2011
IV-11   Monthly Voice and Text Usage by Age, January 2011
IV-12   Common Fixed Mobile Convergence Scenarios
IV-13   Taxonomy of US Business and Consumer Telecommunication Spending
IV-14   Business vs. Consumer Mobile Phones Sales 2013-2019 ($Millions)
IV-15   Business vs. Consumer Cellular Voice Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
IV-16   Business vs. Consumer Cellular Data Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)


Chapter V
V-1      Operations Support Systems Dataflow
V-2      Business Operations Systems Dataflow
V-3      Telecommunications Management Network Functional Architecture
V-4      Total Worldwide OSS Sales Revenue, 2011-2016 ($Billions)
V-5      Operator Capex in Selected Geographies, 2009-2017 ($Billions)


Chapter VI
VI-1     Web 2.0 Business Models
VI-2     Global Opportunities for Web 2.0 Applied to Telecommunications, 2011-2016 ($Millions)
VI-3     Logical Schematic of a Commercial Mashup
VI-4     Global Mashup Revenue Opportunity for Telcos, 2010-2015 ($Millions)
VI-5     Taxonomy of Revenue Opportunities in the Financial Domains
VI-6     Global Financial Services & Equipment Revenue, 2012-2017 ($Millions)
VI-7     Telecom Networking Before and After IP
VI-8     Operator Capex in Selected Geographies, 2009-2017 ($Billions)

CHAPTER VII
VII-1    Taxonomy of US Business and Consumer Telecommunication Spending
VII-2    US Business vs. Consumer Mobile Phones Sales 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-3    US Business vs. Consumer Cellular Voice Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-4    US Business vs. Consumer Cellular Data Market, 2013-2019 ($Millions)
VII-5    Capacities of 64 Kbit/s, T1, and T3 Circuits
VII-6    Typical Layout for a Full Circuit
VII-7    ISDN Switched Backup
VII-8    SONET Rings
VII-9    Fiber-to-Fiber Redundancy
VII-10  Cable-to-Cable Physical Redundancy (Diverse Cable Redundancy)
VII-11  Total Private Line Revenue 2013-2018 ($Millions)
VII-12  US Managed Services Revenues, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-13  Global Managed Services Revenues, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-14  Global Managed Services Market by Region, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-15  Total US Healthcare Telecom Service Revenues, 2012-2017 ($Millions)
VII-16 Global Market for Enterprise Mobility Solutions, 2011-2016 ($Millions)
VII-17  US Telecommunications Revenue by Market, 2012 ($Billions)
VII-18  US MSO Commercial Service Revenues, 2013-2018 ($Billions)
VII-19  Revenue Projection for Hosted PBX/VoIP Service in the Small Business Segment , 2010-2015 ($Millions)
VII-20  Advanced Strategic Services Framework
VII-21  Telecommunications Value Chain
VII-22  US Advanced Strategic Services Revenues Summary ($Billions) 

Copyright © 2018 Techgradient., and / or its Affiliates. All Rights Reserved. | See our Privacy Policy.

Design & Development